Introduction to Agricultural Trade in the WTO Links to the Agricultural Part of the WTO Guide “Understanding the WTO” WTO Information on Agriculture, including Submissions from WTO Members Video: How to Use AGIMS Agriculture is the oldest crop in all of human civilization. The history of agriculture in India goes back ten thousand years. The WTO succeeds the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), created in 1947. Gatt held a total of eight rounds. The WTO Agreement on Agriculture, known as the “International Treaty”, was one of the most important agreements negotiated during the Uruguay Round, in which a total of 123 countries participated. The objectives of WTO laws are to promote free and liberal trade. But there has been widespread abuse of this concept. Exporting countries have begun to dump their products into importing countries, which has posed a serious threat to the economies of developing countries, especially to India`s agriculture. Although agriculture has always been covered by the GATT, before the WTO there were several important differences in the rules that applied to primary agricultural products compared to industrial products.
The GATT 1947 allowed countries to use export subsidies for agricultural precursors, while export subsidies for industrial products were prohibited. The only conditions were that agricultural export subsidies should not be used to cover more than a fair share of world exports of the product concerned (Article XVI(3) of the GATT). GATT rules also allowed countries to apply import restrictions (e.B under certain conditions. Import quotas), in particular where such restrictions were necessary to enforce measures to effectively limit domestic production (Article XI(2)(c) of the GATT). This exception was also subject to the condition that a minimum proportion of imports in domestic production was as large as possible. At the 2013 WTO Ministerial Conference in Bali, Indonesia, ministers also agreed on a range of agriculture-related issues. While the volume of global agricultural exports has increased significantly in recent decades, its growth rate has lagged behind that of industry, resulting in a steady decline in agriculture`s share of world trade in goods. In 1998, agricultural trade, including trade in services, accounted for 10.5% of total trade in goods, and agriculture`s share of world exports fell to 8.5%. In global trade, however, agriculture is still ahead of sectors such as mining products, automotive products, chemicals, textiles and clothing, or iron and steel. .